CSC 153  Grinnell College  Spring, 2005 
Computer Science Fundamentals  
Laboratory Exercise  
This lab provides practice with lists in Scheme, including the basic operations (cons, car, cdr), list literals, the empty list, and several common builtin procedures.
(+ x y) (this is a list) (sqrt x) () (* pi (expt r 2)) (+ (* x x) (* 3 x) 2) (all x (if (human x) (mortal x))) ( () ) ((())) ((()())())
Check that each list has the number of components you expect.
Type the following three expressions into Scheme:
(length 5) (length '(+ 2 3)) (length (+ 2 3))
In each case, explain the result.
Review each of the following examples that involve car and cdr.
(car '(a b c)) = a (car '((a) b c)) = (a) (car (car '((a) b c))) = a (car 'a) error: a is not a list. (car '()) error: () is not a pair. (cdr '(a b c)) = (b c) (cdr '((a) b c)) = (b c) (cdr (cdr '(a b c))) = (c) (cdr (car '((a) b c))) = () (cdr 'a) error: a is not a list. (cdr '()) error: () is not a pair.
Type some or all of these expressions into Scheme. In each case, be sure you understand the result obtained.
Consider the expression (all x (if (human x) (mortal x))). Write Scheme expressions to extract each of the following:
all if human
Write a Scheme expression that creates the list (a b c) using only the individual symbols a, b, and c, the nil list, and the cons, car, and cdr functions.
Write a Scheme expression that creates the list ((a) (b c)) using only the individual symbols a, b, and c, the nil list, and the cons, car, and cdr functions.
Explain what happens when you apply reverse to the lists:
((a) (b c)) (+ (* x x) (* 3 x) 2)
Explain what is returned from each of the following:
(car '(a b c)) (car (a b c)) '(car (a b c)) '(car '(a b c))
Evaluate the following slightly tricky forms:
(append '(a b c) '( )) (list '(a b c) '( )) (cons '(a b c) '( ))
In each case, explain why you received the result that you obtain.
This document is available on the World Wide Web as
http://www.walker.cs.grinnell.edu/courses/153.sp05/labs/lablists.shtml
created January 22, 1997 last revised January 23, 2005 

For more information, please contact Henry M. Walker at walker@cs.grinnell.edu. 